Could Alzheimer Disease Be Diabetes Type 3?

March 10, 2015

Evidence is mounting that links insulin deficiency and insulin resistance to mediation of Alzheimer disease-type neurodegeneration. Get the highlights in these 9 slides.

The provocative title of this slide show is borrowed from a review of evidence published in the Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology several years ago by de la Monte and Wands. They combed through a growing body of literature that points toward insulin deficiency and insulin resistance as mediators of Alzheimer disease (AD)-type neurodegeneration. This short presentation highlights some of the many links now seen clearly between the metabolic derangements of diabetes and progressive cognitive decline: -- The risk of developing AD may be up to 65% higher in people with diabetes vs those without -- Chronic hyperglycemia is identified as a risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia -- Central insulin receptors are clustered in the learning and memory areas of the brain(Please scroll to bottom of page for references/hyperlinks.)

References:

1. Barbagallo M, Dominguez LG.  Type 2 diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer’s disease.  World J Diabetes. 2014;5:889-893. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4265876/

2. Arvanitakis Z, Wilson RS, Bienias JL, Evans DA, Bennett DA. Diabetes mellitus and risk of Alzheimer disease and decline in cognitive function. Arch Neurol. 2004;5:661-666. http://archneur.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=785863

3. Cooper C, Sommerlad A, Lyketsos CG, et al. Modifiable predictors of dementia in mild cognitive impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. AJP.  Published online Feb 22, 2015. S http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.14070878http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/abs/10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.14070878

4. Ascher-Svanum H, Chen YF, Hake A, et al. Cognitive and functional decline in patients with mild Alzheimer dementia with or without comorbid diabetes. Clin Ther. Published online Feb 9, 2015 Feb 9. pii: S0149-2918(15)00011-9. doi: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2015.01.002
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=10.1016%2Fj.clinthera.2015.01.002

5. De la Monte SM, Wands JR. Alzheimer’s disease is type 3 diabetes: evidence reviewed.
J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2008;2:1101-1113. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2769828/

6. Shaikh S, Danish Rizvi SM, Shakil S, et al. Forxiga (Dapagliflozin): plausible role in the treatment of diabetes associated neurological disorders. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2014 Nov 17. doi: 10.1002/bab.1319. [Epub ahead of print]
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=10.1002%2Fbab.1319.