Diabetic Nephropathy: Which Risk Factor is Most Strongly Associated?

December 9, 2014

Some risk factors for diabetic nephropathy can't be modified, but they support aggressive treatment to control hyperglycemia.

Without intervention, approximately 30% of patients with type 2 diabetes will progress to overt diabetic nephropathy and, after 20 years of nephropathy, approximately 20% develop ESRD. Poor glycmemic control is a significant contributing factor.

Which of the following other risk factors demonstrates the strongest association with development of diabetic nephropathy?